Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International https://www.journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-9119)</strong> is dedicated to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JPRI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of pharmaceutical Science including pharmaceutical drugs, community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, clinical pharmacy, compounding pharmacy, consultant pharmacy, internet pharmacy, veterinary pharmacy, nuclear pharmacy, military pharmacy, pharmacy informatics, pharmaceutics, medicinal chemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmacotherapy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical pharmacology, neuropharmacology, psychopharmacology, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, pharmacoepidemiology, toxicology, theoretical pharmacology, posology, pharmacognosy, behavioral pharmacology, environmental pharmacology, medicine development and safety testing, drug legislation and safety, pharmaceutical microbiology, pharmaceutical molecular biology, pharmaceutical biotechnology.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International 2456-9119 Identification of Antibiotic Resistance Pattern, and Detection of Virulence Genes iss, and ompT in Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli from Broiler Chickens in Chitwan, Nepal https://www.journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30783 <p>This study aimed to identify, evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern and detect virulence genes <em>iss, </em>and<em> ompT</em> in avian pathogenic <em>Escherichia coli</em> (APEC) from broiler chickens in central Nepal. To determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of the obtained isolates, the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used with six different commercial antibiotic discs: Amikacin, Gentamycin, Ciprofloxacin, Doxycycline, Chloramphenicol and Levofloxacin. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used for the selected isolates (n=40) to screen the presence of the <em>iss </em>and <em>ompT</em> genes after the extraction of DNA using the boiling method Out of 60 suspected Colibacillosis liver samples, 40 were confirmed as <em>E. coli </em>positive The antibiogram profile revealed maximum resistance to Doxycycline (87.5%), followed by Levofloxacin (72.5%), Ciprofloxacin (67.5%), Chloramphenicol (40.0%), Gentamycin (32.5%) and Amikacin (10.0%).. The presence of the<em> iss</em> and <em>ompT</em> genes was found to be 100.0% and 90.0%, respectively. APEC was found to be highly resistant to most of the antibiotics. Virulence-associated genes <em>iss</em> and <em>ompT </em>were obtained at high percentages from Colibacillosis suspected broiler chickens in Chitwan, Nepal. These finding suggests that the judicial use of antimicrobials is compulsory to check antibiotic resistance and Colibacillosis outbreaks in poultry farms.</p> Saroj Sankhi Rebanta Kumar Bhattarai Hom Bahadur Basnet Nirmal Raj Marasine Himal Luitel Mukesh Nayak Sabina Sankhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-24 2020-09-24 1 12 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2330783 Effects of 6-Weeks Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise on CD4 Count, Bone Mineral Density and Weight of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Alex-Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Ebonyi State https://www.journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30784 <p>The main aim of this study was to find out the effects of 6 weeks moderate intensity aerobic exercises on CD4 count, bone mineral density and weight of people living with HIV/AIDS in Alex-Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Ebonyi State. The study adopted experimental research design. The study was carried out form year 2019-February 2020. The population of the study was 40 HIV/AIDS patients that attended HIV clinics at AE-FUTHA which formed the sample size after two subjects declined from the control group in the study. Simple random sampling technique was adopted for the study. Flowcytometery (Partec Cyflow counter) Germany, Heel Densitometer (X-rite 331C), and Omron BF 400 were the instrument used for data collection of CD4 counts, BMD and weight respectively. Mean, standard deviation and ANCOVA were used to analyze the data obtained.&nbsp; The instruments were not validated because they are standard. The reliability coefficient obtained from the pilot study was 0.848, 0.835 and 0.994 for CD4, BMD and WEIGHT respectively. The major findings revealed that MIAE had positive effect on CD4 counts and BMD but negative effect on weight.</p> Asogwa, Eucharia Ijego Obeagu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Ekine, Rupee Suoton Asogwa, Okwudilichukwu Okwy Amaeze, Augustine Amaeze Amaeze, Florence Ngozi Kalu, Ochie Orizu, Ifeoma Ada Abraham, John Chukwuebuka Odochi, Ogbu Chukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 13 22 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2330784 Comparison of the Effect of Combined Treatment with Radiotherapy and Hyperthermia versus Exclusively Radiotherapy to Reduce Pain in Patients with Bone Metastases https://www.journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30785 <p>Based on the extant studies conducted by scholars, recognizing the best and practical treatment methods in patients with bone metastases is an important and conspicuous focus in improving and amelioration of the treatment and prognosis of patients. Ergo, this study aims to compare the effects of radiotherapy and hyperthermia with radiotherapy only to reduce pain in one of the oncology centers located in Tehran (the capital city of Iran). In this randomized clinical trial study, patients with bone metastases were randomly assigned to one of two group’s radiotherapy and hyperthermia or radiotherapy exclusively and the collected data were processed through Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS). Thenceforth, findings were evaluated and compared between the two groups. A total of 60 patients inclusive of 34 women and 26 men were investigated. In the baseline, 20 patients in the case group (67%) and 21 patients in the control group (70%) used palliative drugs. At the end of the trial, the consumption of palliative drugs was decreased in the case group (12 patients, 43%) but, no change was observed in the control group. After treatment, complete response to treatment (27% vs. 13%), experienced a decrease in the clinical pain (57% vs. 83%) and did not respond to treatment in a stable mode (17% vs. 4%) of which were different between case and control groups, respectively. Regardless of the difference in the ratio of partial response in two groups, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of response to treatment. Although the effect of radiotherapy and hyperthermia in comparison with radiotherapy exclusively was more efficacious in some aspects of the intervention of pain with sleep. However, there was no remarkable and significant difference in other cases.</p> Baharak Keyvan Alireza Nikoofar Mastaneh Sanei Mohammadreza Barzegar- Tahamtan Seyed Rabi Mahdavi Leila Khalafi Tayebeh Aryafar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 23 34 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2330785 Maternal Expressions (Serum Levels) of Alpha Tumour Necrosis Factor, Interleukin 10, Interleukin 6 and Interleukin 4 in Malaria Infected Pregnant Women Based on Parity in a Tertiary Hospital in Southeast, Nigeria https://www.journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30786 <p>Malaria has been reported as a condition caused by infestation with Plasmodium parasite specie, which is a great public health problem globally, particularly in developing countries like Nigeria. This study was carried out in Federal Medical Centre Umuahia in Abia State, Nigeria. The study was done to determine the maternal serum levels of alpha tumour necrosis factor, interleukin 10, interleukin 6, and interleukin 4 in malaria-infected pregnant women based on parities in Southeast, Nigeria.&nbsp; A total of 150 subjects between the ages of 18-45 years were recruited for the study comprising 50 subjects each of 3 parities (groups A-C). A commercial ELISA Kit was used to measure all the cytokines. Neither statistically significant differences were found for TNF-α (p=0.636), IL-10 (p=0.892), IL-6 (p=0.306) and IL-4 (p=0.222) between prime parity and second parity nor for TNF-α (p=0.356), IL-10 (p=0.896), IL-6 (p=0.304) and IL-4 (p=0.298) between prime parity and multi-parity of malaria-infected pregnant women. TNF-α (p=0.255), IL-10 (p=0.524), IL-6 (p=0.616), and IL-4 (p=0.672) between second parity and on multi-parity respectively. The study showed no changes in the cytokines studied among the malaria-infected pregnant women based on parities. It shows that the number of pregnancies in women infected with malaria has no changes in the levels of the cytokines studied.</p> Obeagu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Getrude Uzoma Amaeze, Augustine Amaeze Asogwa, Eucharia Ijego Chukwurah, Ejike Felix Amaeze, Florence Ngozi Chukwu, Stella Nchekwubedi Kama, Stella Chinenye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 35 41 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2330786 Perception and Attitude of Healthcare Providers towards Clinical Pharmacists at Near East University Hospital in Northern Cyprus https://www.journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30787 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of study is to assess the perception and attitude of healthcare professionals towards clinical pharmacists in a university hospital North Cyprus.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>A cross-sectional survey study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> This study was conducted in the Near East University Hospital in Northern Cyprus setting from May 2017 to July 2017 for 3 months.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A total of 256 healthcare providers (45 physicians, 80 nurses, and 131 intern medical students) from a tertiary hospital in North Cyprus participated in this study. A questionnaire was distributed to assess the perception and attitude of healthcare professionals towards clinical pharmacists. The data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 18. A p-value of less than 0.05 (p&lt;0.05) was considered as statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Eighty-seven (66.4%) of intern medical students have recognized the role of clinical pharmacists in minimising adverse drug reaction and improving therapeutic outcome of the patients through pharmaceutical care. Twenty-five (55.6%) of physicians were comfortable with the clinical pharmacist participating in the ward rounds and providing consultation to physicians regarding individual patients. Fifty-seven (71.3%) of the nurses have confirmed the clinical pharmacist as playing a role in the identification of the drug interactions. A significant difference exists between responses of the healthcare providers (physicians and nurses) and the intern medical&nbsp; students regarding the perception towards improvement in the field of the clinical pharmacist (p&lt;0.0001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study has been shown that physicians have a positive attitude towards clinical pharmacy services. Healthcare providers are aware of the role of clinical pharmacists in the healthcare system. A multidisciplinary workspace could be created between clinical pharmacists and healthcare providers to deliver better healthcare service to patients.</p> Sami Shabbir Malik Nevzat Birand Bilgen Başgut ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 42 51 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2330787 Endocrine Markers of Fertility Potential in Reproductive Age Women with Idiopathic Hyperprolactinemia https://www.journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30790 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hyperprolactinemia (HP) is a common endocrine gynecological disorder in women of reproductive age manifested with menstrual irregularity and sterility subfertility among the majority of women with this disorder.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of this study was to assess the endocrinal markers of inferility in premenopausal women with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Metahodology:</strong> The study included 82 women: 27 healthy women, 22 fertile women with idiopathic HP and 33 patients with endocrine sub fertility with idiopathic HP.&nbsp; All women underwent a standard history taking, clinical examinations.&nbsp; Lab tests were performed in all women and included the detection of the concentrations of prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, cortisol, gonadotrophic hormones, testosterone, and estradiol by ELISA method.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study results demonstrated that subfertile women with HP are characterized by an increase of follicle-stimulating hormone and free triiodothyronine and a decrease of estradiol and cortisol when compared with fertile patients with HP and Healthy patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The better glucocorticoid and ovarian function of fertile women with HP supposed to be an essential issue in their reproductive ability.</p> Alina Valerievna Atalyan Leonid Fedorovich Shelokhov Lyubov Ilinichna Kolesnikova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 71 77 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2330790 Bacterial Analysis for Seminal Fluid befor In-vitro Fertilization Procedure https://www.journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30793 <p><em>In vitro</em> fertilization (IVF) is the most advanced technique of assisted reproductive where the sperm reach the eggs for fertilization in a laboratory tube. Seminal fluid often contains bacterial contaminants that decrease the quality and quantity of seminal fluids.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> In this study we investigated the presence of bacteria in semen before IVF procedure.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> All samples were identified according to the morphological, biochemical, molecular, and antimicrobial tests.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Microbial species were detected in 28% of semen samples, while 72% did not show any bacterial growth. The prevalent bacterial isolates were <em>Staphylococcus</em> spp., <em>Enterococcus </em>spp., <em>Catellicoccus</em> spp., and <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The use of microbiological analysis to identify resistant bacterial isolates is considered an effective method to reduce infertility in men by changing the contaminated semen.</p> S. O. Noor A. Albalawi H. Abduljabbar Ebtesam H. Alosaimi Sabah M. Hassan A. Najjar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 85 92 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2330793 Ego-Identity of Women in the Reproductive Age with Pcos and Their Socio-Demographic Determinants https://www.journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30794 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The purpose of the research is to identify the ego-identity nature of women of reproductive age with PCOS and socio-demographic factors determining this pattern.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The methods, used in the study, are as follows: "SEI-test" by EL Soldatova, Life-Line test by A.A. Kronik, «Twenty statements test» (TST) by M. Kuhn and T. McPartland; the total sample included 140 women (70 women with PCOS, 70 without PCOS).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In women of reproductive age, diagnosed with PCOS, the status of Ego-identity Achievement prevails compared to women without this diagnosis. Patients with PCOS also show much less complete representation of their past and future life. Finally, women PCOS describe themselves in categories related to identity social component (career, self-development, etc.), rather than the interpersonal component (family sphere). Influence analysis of socio-demographic factors on the identity of women with PCOS showed that a greater number of external factors determine their identity compared to women without this diagnosis. The ego-identity of such women depends on their marital status and place of residence.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Women of reproductive age with PCOS, the status of Ego-identity Achievement prevails, compared to women without PCOS, similar by marital, age, and social status. It means they are responsible for their choice and control over their emotions.</p> Anait Yuryevna Marianian Mikhail Yuryevich Kuzmin Daria Pavlovna Markova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 93 101 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2330794 The Potential Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of Astragalus davisii against Paracetamol Induced Liver Damage in Rats https://www.journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30797 <p>The current study aimed to estimate <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant effect of <em>Astragalus davisii</em> (<em>A. davisii</em>) extract. Further, the possible protective effect of <em>A. davisii</em> against paracetamol (PCM)-induced liver injury was assessed in rats. <em>A. davisii</em> was tested for its antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay. The hepatoprotective potential of the extract was assessed in rats following oral administration for 7 days. Liver injury was induced in rats following oral administration of PCM overdose. Hepatic biomarkers; alanine-aminotransferase, aspartate-aminotransferase, alkaline-phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase and bilirubin were increased, while total protein and albumin were reduced in PCM control animals. Additionally, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) and the levels of glutathione were significantly declined, while levels of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly elevated in PCM alone treated rats. Oral administration of <em>A. davisii</em> (400 mg/kg) prior to PCM inhibited the elevation in the levels of liver damage markers in serum and protected against oxidative stress. Histopathological remarks confirmed the hepatoprotective potential of the extract. The results suggest that <em>A. davisii</em> extract at 400 mg/kg protects liver against injury induced by PCM overdose.</p> Ahmed I. Foudah Mohammed H. Alqarni Gamal A. Soliman Rehab F. Abdel- Rahman Özgen Alankuş- Çalışkan Majid A. Ganaie Hasan Yusufoglu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 102 114 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2330797 Challenges in Approaching Management of Pulmonary Fibrosis https://www.journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30788 <p>Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition defined as a recurrent and progressive interstitial fibrotic disease and is considered to be terminated by interstitial lung disease disorders. Accumulating evidence indicates that epigenetic alterations, including histone acetylation, play a pivotal role in this process. Histone acetylation is governed by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Vorinostat is a member of a larger class of compounds that inhibit histone deacetylases. Even though the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis is complicated, hypotheses have been proposed in recent years that include inflammation, epithelial degradation, differentiated fibroblast, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress. Emerging evidence from several preclinical studies has shown that Vorinostat has beneficial effects in preventing or reversing fibrogenesis. In this review, we summarize the latest findings of the roles of HDACs in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and highlight the potential antifibrotic mechanism of Vorinostat in this diseases.</p> Manar Khaled Al- Hayfani Hala Salah Abdel Kawy Fatemah Omar Kamel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 52 70 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2330788 Vaginal Microbiocenosis Features in HIV-positive Women of Fertile Age https://www.journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30792 <p><strong>Aim and Objective of Our Study:</strong> The aim and objective of our study is to analyze the research data that has been studying the effect of HIV infection on vaginal microbiocenosis and further, to determine the differences in dysbiotic disorders in seronegative and seropositive women. We have also assessed the effect of vaginal microbiota on pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Evaluation of the Russian and other countries results on the microbiota of HIV-positive women studies, published in international databases.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The analysis of the research data aimed at studying the effect of HIV infection on the vaginal microbiocenosis indicates that dysbiotic disorders in HIV-infected patients are significantly more frequent. It has been revealed that the atypical clinical picture of changes in the vaginal microbiocenosis prevails. It has been noted that there is a correlation of vaginal microbiocenosis in HIV-positive women and indicators of systemic immunity, CD4 + cell levels.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on analysis of published in international databases Russian and other countries studies results on the HIV-positive women microbiota, it was found that there is a need for additional studies of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the microbiota of HIV-positive women. It is need to assess the of the vaginalmicrobiotaand other possible connected factors ability to change the concentration of antiretroviral drugs.</p> Anait Yuryevna Marianian Maria Alexandrovna Rashidova Lyubov Ilinichna Kolesnikova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 78 84 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2330792 Social and Economic Effect of Comprehensive Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in Children: A Review https://www.journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30798 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and its effects on the developing fetus are a serious global healthcare issue. The damage caused by alcohol goes far beyond mother’s health and spreads to the child’s physical and mental health.</p> <p><strong>Aim of Review: </strong>Analysis of existing approaches in organizing the necessary rehabilitation programs and preventing the consequences of drinking alcohol during pregnancy, assessing the potential socio-economic effect of organizing comprehensive prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal-alcohol spectrum of disorders (FASD).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Children with FAS and influence of consequences of FAS/FASD on the nation’s material well-being conducted in Russia and abroad were analyzed by studying various published literature. Necessary rehabilitation measures for children with FAS/FASD were identified; analyzed international studies on the economic implications of the FAS/FASD; economic costs for medical and correctional services for children with FAS/FASD in Russia were assessed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This review found that the Not all children with FAS/FASD are mentally retarded, they have behavioral disorders and the development of the emotional-volitional sphere is significantly behind the age norms. So, at 10-12 years of age, these children are still not contractual and cannot remain without adult supervision even for several hours. They require ongoing parental or tutor support. The range of disorders in fetal alcohol syndrome is very diverse, therefore, each child requires an individual approach in the formation of a rehabilitation program, which significantly increases costs in general and requires the involvement of highly qualified specialists.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is a need for additional economic calculations to scale up a comprehensive prevention program throughout the country. It is also important to note that the implementation of preventive measures does not eliminate the need for organizing assistance programs for families raising children with FAS/FASD.</p> Anait Yuryevna Marianian Elena Vladimirovna Molchanova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-24 2020-09-24 115 123 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2330798