Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-9119)</strong> is dedicated to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JPRI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of pharmaceutical Science including pharmaceutical drugs, community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, clinical pharmacy, compounding pharmacy, consultant pharmacy, internet pharmacy, veterinary pharmacy, nuclear pharmacy, military pharmacy, pharmacy informatics, pharmaceutics, medicinal chemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmacotherapy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical pharmacology, neuropharmacology, psychopharmacology, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, pharmacoepidemiology, toxicology, theoretical pharmacology, posology, pharmacognosy, behavioral pharmacology, environmental pharmacology, medicine development and safety testing, drug legislation and safety, pharmaceutical microbiology, pharmaceutical molecular biology, pharmaceutical biotechnology.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International 2456-9119 Comparative Study between Open Surgical Drainage and Closed Technique of Percutaneous Aspiration under Image Guidance for Management of Breast Abscess <p><strong>Background: </strong>The conventional surgical management of breast abscesses consists of an incision taken over the point at which there is maximum fluctuation (or pain) and breaking of the abscess septa by digits. Now&nbsp;antibiotics&nbsp;and&nbsp;repeated&nbsp;abscess&nbsp;aspiration under USG guidance is new minimally invasive method which is on rise</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong></p> <ol> <li>To study the outcome of open technique of breast abscess management.</li> <li>To study the outcome of closed technique of breast abscess management.</li> <li>To compare the outcome of open v/s closed technique of surgical management of breast abscess.</li> </ol> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Sample will be divided into two groups and type of treatment i.e open incision and drainage or percutaneous aspiration under guidance will be decided randomly by chit system.</p> <p><strong>Expected Results: </strong>Feasibility and outcome of Percutaneous drainage is better than incision and drainage</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>First line management of Breast abscess will soon be percutaneous drainage under USG guidance.</p> Chetna Dilip Rathi Meenakshi Yeola (Pate) ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 1 7 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i33A31765 Critical Appraisal of National Accreditation and Assessment Council Accreditation Guidelines with Reference to Medical Sciences Universities/ Institutions as Against US and UK and Proposing an Upgraded Model of Accreditation Guidelines – A Study Protocol <p><strong>Background: </strong>Accreditation forms chief platform to the fact that higher education should be accurately directed towards betterment, sharpening, honing and nourishing intellectual persona of learners.</p> <p>There is palpable need to critically analyze manuals embodying accrediting guidelines for Medical Sciences Universities / Institutions prescribed by NAAC as against guidelines in vogue in U.S. and U.K. with reference to any identifiable inadequacy pertaining to meaningful accreditation of Medical Sciences Universities / Institutions and proposing an ideal model towards meaningful accreditation .</p> <p><strong>Aim and Objectives: </strong>To critically evaluate manuals of accreditation of Medical Sciences Universities / Institutions notified by National Accreditation and Assessment Council with reference to those in vogue in U.S. and U.K. and generate updated manual for accreditation of Medical Science Universities / Institutions in India.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong></p> <p><strong>Type of study:</strong> Descriptive study.</p> <p><strong>Duration of study:</strong> 2 years.</p> <p><strong>Place of study: </strong>Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi Meghe, Wardha.</p> <p><strong>Expected Results: </strong>Generation of upgraded manual of accreditation of Medical Universities / Institutions in India.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Updated manual of accreditation of medical Sciences Universities / Institutions in India could be availed by National Assessment and Accreditation Council for its utilization as a basal / referral document towards the necessary policy frame.</p> Gaurav Mishra Tripti Srivastava Rajasbala Dhande Rohan Kumar Singh Prerna Patwa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 8 12 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i33A31766 Features of Rehabilitation Therapeutic Treatment of Patients who have come through Coronavirus Disease <p>The purpose of the article is to consider the features of restorative therapeutic treatment of patients who have suffered a coronavirus infection. This disease can cause respiratory, physical and psychological dysfunction in patients. Therefore, restorative therapeutic treatment and rehabilitation are critical for both hospitalized and discharged patients with COVID-19.</p> <p>The author believes that many patients who have a history of a previous coronavirus infection note that they experience various unpleasant symptoms even six months after receiving negative tests. So, such patients may experience weakness, shortness of breath, tachycardia, instability of mental states, and so on. At the same time, against the background of an active fight against the spread of COVID-19, measures related to the rehabilitation of convalescents are receding into the background, which is fundamentally wrong. The paper analyzes the literature devoted to the problem of rehabilitation treatment after a coronavirus infection, and also applies comparative and comparative research methods.</p> <p>The author concludes that complications after COVID-19 can significantly worsen the quality of life of patients. For this reason, specialists need to identify the degree and level of complications and patients who have suffered a coronavirus infection as early as possible in order to prescribe appropriate medication or physiotherapy.</p> Aishat Iskhakovna Gimbatova David Avakovich Gabrielyan Tatiana Timokhina Andrey Petrovich Kostikov Vitaly V. Goncharov Aleksandra Alekseevna Sokolova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-23 2021-06-23 69 75 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i33A31773 Formulation Development and Optimization of Sustained Release Microspheres of Acebrophylline <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Aim of present work is to prepare and evaluate Sustained release microspheres of Acebrophylline for treatment of Asthma.</p> <p><strong>Experimental work:</strong> In present investigation, attempt was made to prepare sustained release microspheres of Acebrophylline with different polymer ratio using Ionic gelation method. Drug- excipient compatibility studies were performed by FTIR. The best suited Microspheres formulation was found on the basis production yield, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release study. Optimized batch of microspheres (B2) was characterized for FTIR, DSC, and SEM analysis. The drug release data of optimized batch was fitted into different release kinetic models. The optimized batch of microspheres (B2) was subjected for the short term stability study at 40 ± 2°C with RH of 75% for a period of 1 month.</p> <p><strong>Results and discussion: </strong>There was no interaction found between drug and excipients. Sodium alginate (2%) concentration, Eudragit RS-100 (1:2) ratio gave highest sustainable property and CaCl<sub>2 </sub>(2.5%) concentration had a good cross linking property. This observation done on the basis of production yield, entrapment efficiency and <em>In vitro</em> release study. The Microspheres prepared from Ionic gelation method had Drug : Eudragit RS100 (1:2), 2 % Sodium alginate and 2.5 % CaCl<sub>2 </sub>(B2) give 99.2 % drug release over the periods of 12 hr. The drug release from optimized microspheres formulation (B2) follows first order release kinetic. DSC study showed the melting behavior of drug present into microspheres. SEM studies showed that optimized microspheres were spherical and rough surface.&nbsp; Stability study proved that optimized formulation (B2) was stable.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; Drug: Polymer ratio and Volume of CaCl<sub>2</sub> had significant effect on % Entrapment efficiency and Drug release. From the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) study observed that microspheres was spherical and rough surface. Non Fickian diffusion was the mode of drug release from Acebrophylline- loaded microspheres. After stability study no physical changes &amp; almost same drug release was observed in microspheres. Hence, the formulation B2 was stable.</p> Niyati Shah Ayesha Sheikh Hitesh Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-23 2021-06-23 13 28 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i33A31767 Effect of Metformin and Its Combination with Probiotic on Menstrual Irregularity and TSH Levels in Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial <p><strong>Background: </strong>Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the far most common endocrine disorder among sexually active women. The disease is typically characterized by irregular menstrual cycles and appears to be influenced by associated thyroid dysfunction.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The goal of this research was to assess and compare the effects of Metformin and its combination with Probiotic on monthly cycle irregularity and TSH levels in PCOS women.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This was a single-center study conducted at Karachi's Gynecological Outpatient department from January 2019 to September 2019. A total of 52 PCOS patients aged 18 to 40 years were included in this trial, which followed Rotterdam criteria. After providing written and consent form, individuals were randomized into one of the two groups and received Metformin 500 mg TD (n = 26) or Metformin Combination (n = 26).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>After three months of treatment, both groups improved in terms of menstrual cycle irregularity and TSH levels, but the combination treatment improved the most.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Probiotics may be considered in conjunction with Metformin for improving TSH levels to achieve better results.</p> Urooj Zafar Nasima Iqbal Faizah Mughal Faiza Quraishi Ali Nawaz Bijarani Mariam Muneer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-23 2021-06-23 29 38 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i33A31768 Outcome Analysis of Osteosynthesis Versus Hemiarthroplasty for the Treatment of Displaced Femoral Neck Fracture in Young Elderly Patient <p>This study was designed to compare the osteosynthesis and hemiarthroplasty treatment among the elderly population and evaluate the postoperative functional performance of these two recommended treatments of a displaced femoral neck fracture.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This retrospective study was conducted in Bone Care trauma center Heerabad&nbsp; Hospital Hyderabad Pakistan from March 2019 to March 2020. A total of 74 patients of age between&nbsp; 60 to 70 years were selected. All the selected patients were diagnosed with femoral neck fractures (Garden’s III and IV). Harris's hip score was used to evaluate the clinical status of patients with pain, whereas we used Palmer and Parker's mobility to access mobility. Implant breakage, screw cut, and nonunion were considered as parameters of osteosynthesis failure. At the same time, hemiarthroplasty failure was defined as two or more recurrent dislocation, aseptic loosening, periprosthetic fracture, and infection.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp; In the first three postoperative months, the mean score of the hemiarthroplasty group was reported as 74.44±8.480, which was comparatively high than the osteosynthesis group (66.44±8.520). After six months, this score reached 80.12±7.005 in the hemiarthroplasty group and reached its maximum of 92.14±7.125. After the first three months, the increment ratio was relatively slow with six ratios, but in the last visit, we observed a sudden increase in score in both groups. Regarding Palmer and Parker's mobility score, the hemiarthroplasty group reflected better outcomes than the osteosynthesis group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our study concluded that management of displaced femoral neck fracture with osteosynthesis revealed a high probability of nonunion, screw cutout complications and enhanced the risk of reoperation. Patients treated with osteosynthesis showed delay rehabilitation.</p> Muhammad Rafique Joyo Nizam Ahmed Ghazanfar Ali Shah Aftab Alam Khanzada Tanveer Afzal Niaz Hussain Keerio Syed Shahid Noor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-23 2021-06-23 53 59 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i33A31771 Association between Dietary Pattern and Insulin Resistance <p>The current evidence supports the fact that obesity is directly involved in a significant correlation with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Many studies have been published to report the role of many micronutrients, including carbohydrate, lipids and proteins which enhance or worsen the sensitivity of insulin. Thus, this literature review aims to assess the potential association between the different dietary components and insulin resistance based on the findings from the current studies in the literature. It has been suggested that replacing the consumption of fructose with other carbohydrates substances as fibers and starch might reduce such events and enhance insulin sensitivity as these substances pass intact through the gastrointestinal tract to the colon where they begin to be fermented. Additionally, carbohydrates substances reduce the utilization of free fatty acids by enhancing G-coupling through inhibition of the hormone-sensitive lipase, while the effect of overconsumption of glucose and fructose on insulin resistance is still controversial. Moreover, the quality of lipids is far more important than the quantity. Therefore, frequent ingestion of vegetable oils is suggested to enhance the sensitivity. As for proteins, high protein diets have been proposed for their useful effects. However, they should be carefully described to avoid their potential adverse events.</p> Manal Murad Abdullah Al Alhareth Mohammed Alnassir Haifa Alkheledan Arafah Alsayed Sarah Nayyaz Ibrahim Almansour Shaya AlOtaibi Abdulilah Alqarny Majed Alotayfi Abdullah Alsunidy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-23 2021-06-23 39 45 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i33A31769 Dry Cupping Therapy: A Way Forward in the Management of Primary Dysmenorrhoea <p>Dysmenorrhea is a common gynaecological problem in women of reproductive age; in general, it begins with the first ovulation cycle and occurs about two years after menarche and most of the severe episodes occurs before 25 years of age. Primary dysmenorrhoea (<em>Usre Tams Tashannuji</em>) is one of the most common gynaecologic disorders, refers to painful menstruation. In classical Unani texts dysmenorrhoea is defined under topics like <em>Ehtebas-e-tams</em> and <em>Waja-u-zahar</em> and <em>aujae rehm</em>. <em>Hijama</em> (dry cupping) over the umbilicus removes the blood and fluid from the site of inflammation to give relief from the menstrual pain. It also diminishes swellings.</p> Huda Nafees Arshi Anjum ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-23 2021-06-23 46 52 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i33A31770 Astrocytes and their Phenomenal Possibilities in the Treatment of Various Neurodegenerative Disorders: An Overview <p>At present, research in the field of the brain does not cease to surprise us with new facts and discoveries that no one could have suspected about 30 years ago. But it was at the time when it became clear that the cerebral neurons are not the only cells that can respond to changes in the external environment. A real scientific boom began to study a heterogeneous group called glia. And scientists are paying close attention to the largest of them – astrocytes. Understanding the importance of astrocytes in the mechanisms of repair and damage to brain cells in various forms of CNS pathology determines the possibility of targeted search for drugs that affect the rate of development of reactive astrogliosis in response to various brain injuries. At the same time, pharmacological modulation of activated astrocytes and other components of glia can be an integral part of the therapy of neurological diseases.</p> Alina Yuryevna Maslova Kheda Lechaevna Bazaeva Zaira Arazovna Abdullaeva Shuainat Omarovna Khazamova Karina Akhmedovna Zeusheva Tatiana Alekseevna Grechkina Evgeniya Nikolaevna Semkina Maksim Alekseevich Abramov Artem Evgenevich Mishvelov Sergey Nikolaevich Povetkin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-23 2021-06-23 60 68 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i33A31772