A Brief Review on Viral Variants of COVID-19 Infection
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International,
SARS is a type of acute respiratory syndrome. Coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2), highly contagious, affecting people worldwide. Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID19) leads to a rapidly spreading respiratory distress syndrome. It has caused a global pandemic and severe health crisis in most countries. Due to its continual evolution, further research into the virus's pathogenicity and virulence mechanisms and the development of efficient therapy techniques are urgently required. The current paper summarises what is known about the virus's evolutionary and structural features to comprehend better its mutational pattern and probable role in the current pandemic. In December 2019, the Coronavirus Disease (SARSCoV2) began a destructive path toward a global pandemic in Wuhan, China. Since then, several SARS CoV2 variants have been discovered. Despite the speedy development of a COVID19 vaccine and ongoing mass vaccination efforts around the globe, the discovery of the latest SARSCoV2 variants could undermine the substantial success till now in stopping the spread of SARSCoV2.This review aims to characterize the different SARS CoV2 mutations and investigate the associated morbidity and death.
Due to the virus's steady improvement, with its various unmarried nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) versions and lineages, figuring out SARS-CoV-2 infectivity is extraordinarily hard. but, similarly research into the virus's pathogenicity and virulence mechanisms, as well as the improvement of green therapy strategies, is urgent present-day The present day contribution summarises existing expertise regarding the virus's evolutionary and structural homes to clarify its mutational sample and ability function inside the ongoing pandemic.
- viral variants
- genetic diversity
- variants of interest
- duration of vaccine
How to Cite
Mehraeen E, Hayati B, Saeidi S, Heydari M, Seyed AS. Self-care instructions for people not requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Arch Clin Infect Dis; 2020. Available:https://doi.org/10.5812/archcid. 102978.
De Vito A, Fiore V, Princic E, Geremia N, PanuNapodano CM, Muredda AA, et al. Predictors of infection, symptoms development, and mortality in people with SARS-CoV-2 living in retirement nursing homes. PLoS ONE. 2021;16(3):e0248009-e.
De Vito A, Fau GN, Fiore V, Fau FV, Princic E, Fau PE, Babudieri S, Fau BS, Madeddu G, Madeddu G. Clinical features, laboratory findings and pre- doctors of death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Sardinia Italy. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2020;24(14):7861–8.
Vaira LA-OX, Deiana G, Fois AG, Pirina P, Madeddu G, De Vito A, et al. Objective evaluation of anosmia and ageusia in COVID-19 patients: single–center experience on 72 cases. Head neack. 2020;42:1252–8.
Zinellu A, Arru F, De Vito A, Sassu A, Valdes G, Scano V, et al. The De Ritis ratio as prognostic biomarker of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients.Eur J Clin Invest. 2021;51(1):13427.
SeyedAlinaghi S, Ghadimi M, Hajiabdolbaghi M, Rasoolinejad M, Abbasian L, Nezhad MH, et al. Prevalence of COVID-19-like symptoms among people living with HIV, and using antiretroviral therapy for prevention and treatment. Curr HIV Res. 2020;18:373–80.
Jary A, Leducq V, Malet I, Marot S, Klement-Frutos E, Teyssou E, et al. Evolution of viral quasispecies during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clin Micro- biol Infect. 2020;26(11):1560-e1.
Álvarez-Díaz DA, Franco-Muñoz C, Laiton-Donato K, Usme-Ciro JA, Franco-Sierra ND, Flórez-Sánchez AC, et al. Molecular analysis of several in-house rRT-PCR protocols for SARS-CoV-2 detection in the context of genetic variability of the virus in Colombia. Infect Genet Evolut. 2020;84:104390.
Lokman SM, Rasheduzzaman M, Salauddin A, Barua R, Tanzina AY, Rumi MH, et al. Exploring the genomic and proteomic variations of SARS- CoV-2 spike glycoprotein: a computational biology approach. Infect Genet Evolut. 2020;84:104389.
Korber B, Fischer WM, Gnanakaran S, Yoon H, Theiler J, Abfalterer W, et al. Tracking changes in SARS-CoV-2 Spike: evidence that D614G increases infectivity of the COVID-19 virus. Cell. 2020; 182:812–27.
Su YCF, Anderson DE, Young BE, Linster M, Zhu F, Jayakumar J, et al. Discovery and genomic characterization of a 382-nucleotide deletion in ORF7b and ORF8 during the early evolution of SARS-CoV-2. MBio.2020. Available:https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01610-20.
Gong Y-N, Tsao K-C, Hsiao M-J, Huang C-G, Huang P-N, Huang P-W, et al. SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance in Taiwan revealed novel ORF8-deletion mutant and clade possibly associated with infections in middle East. EmergMicrob Infect. 2020;9(1):1457–66.
Consortium CSME. Molecular evolution of the SARS coronavi- rus during the course of the SARS epidemic in China.Science. 2004;303(5664):1666–9.
Cui J, Li F, Shi Z-L. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses.Nat Rev Microbiol. 2018;17(3):181–92.
Muth D, Corman VM, Roth H, Binger T, Dijkman R, Gottula LT, et al. Attenuation of replication by a 29 nucleotide deletion in SARS-corona- virus acquired during the early stages of human-to-human transmis- sion. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):1–1.
Zhang L, Yang J-R, Zhang Z, Lin Z. Genomic variations of SARS- CoV-2 suggest multiple outbreak sources of transmission. medRxiv. 2020;7:154.
Gordon DE, Jang GM, Bouhaddou M, Xu J, Obernier K, White KM, et al. A SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction map reveals targets for drug repur- posing. Nature. 2020;583(7816):459–68.
Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, Chen Y-M, Wang W, Song Z-G, et al. A new coro- navirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature. 2020;579(7798):265– 9.
Bhowmik D, Pal S, Lahiri A, Talukdar A, Paul S. Emergence of multiple variants of SARS-CoV-2 with signature structural changes. bioRxiv. 2020;91:157.
Giovanetti M, Benedetti F, Campisi G, Ciccozzi A, Fabris S, Ceccarelli G, Tambone V, Caruso A, Angeletti S, Zella D, Ciccozzi M. Evolution patterns of SARS-CoV-2: Snapshot on its genome variants. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2021;538:88-91.
Korber B, Fischer WM, Gnanakaran S, Yoon H, Theiler J, Abfalterer W, Hengartner N, Giorgi EE, Bhattacharya T, Foley B, Hastie KM, Parker MD, Partridge DG, Evans CM, Freeman TM, de Silva TI, Sheffield COVID-19 Genomics Group. McDanal C, Perez LG, Tang H, Moon-Walker A, Whelan SP, LaBranche CC, Saphire EO, Montefiori DC. Tracking Changes in SARS-CoV-2 Spike: Evidence that D614G Increases Infectivity of the COVID-19 Virus. Cell. 2020;182(4):812-827.e19.
Oreshkova N, Molenaar RJ, Vreman S, Harders F, Oude Munnink BB, Hakze-van der Honing RW, Gerhards N, Tolsma P, Bouwstra R, Sikkema RS, Tacken MG, de Rooij MM, Weesendorp E, Engelsma MY, Bruschke CJ, Smit LA, Koopmans M, van der Poel WH, Stegeman A. SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed minks, the Netherlands, April and May 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(23)
Chi X, Yan R, Zhang J, Zhang G, Zhang Y, Hao M, Zhang Z, Fan P, Dong Y, Yang Y, Chen Z, Guo Y, Zhang J, Li Y, Song X, Chen Y, Xia L, Fu L, Hou L, Xu J, Yu C, Li J, Zhou Q, Chen W. A neutralizing human antibody binds to the N-terminal domain of the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Science. 2020;369(6504):650-655.
Liu H, Zhang Q, Wei P, Chen Z, Aviszus K, Yang J, Downing W, Peterson S, Jiang C, Liang B, Reynoso L, Downey GP, Frankel SK, Kappler J, Marrack P, Zhang G. The basis of a more contagious 501Y.V1 variant of SARS-COV-2.bioRxiv; 2021.
Callaway, E. Rare COVID reactions might hold key to variant-proof vaccines. Nature 2021;592:20–21
Belluz, J, Irfan, U. How the new Covid-19 could pose a threat to vaccination; 2021.
Soucheray, S. New COVID-19 variants found in New York, California: Center for infectious disease research And policy;2021.
Gale, J. Why the mutated coronavirus variants are so worrisome; 2021.
Muik, A, Wallisch, A-K, Sanger, B, Swanson, KA, Muhl, J, Chen, W, Cai, H, Maurus, D,Sarkar, R, Tureci. Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B. 1.1. 7 pseudovirus by BNT162b2 vaccine–elicited human sera.
Wu, K, Werner, AP, Koch, M, Choi, A, Narayanan, E, Stewart-Jones, GB, Colpitts, T, Bennett, H, Boyoglu-Barnum, S, Shi, W. Serum neutralising activity elicited by mRNA-1273 vaccine.
Griffin, R, Langreth, R. J&J vaccine provides strong shield against severe COVID; 2021.
Bollinger, R, Ray, S. New variants of coronavirus: what you should know. 2021.
Fontanet, A, Autran, B, Lina, B, Kieny, MP, Karim, SSA, Sridhar, D. SARS-CoV-2 variants and ending the COVID-19 pandemic.
Acharya, Sourya, Samarth Shukla, and Neema Acharya. “Gospels of a Pandemic- A Metaphysical Commentary on the Current COVID-19 Crisis.” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2020;14 (6):OA01–2. Available:https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2020/44627.13774.
Arora, Devamsh, Muskan Sharma, Sourya Acharya, Samarth Shukla, and Neema Acharya. “India in ‘Flattening the Curve’ of COVID-19 Pandemic - Triumphs and Challenges Thereof.” Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences-Jemds. 2020;9(43):3252–55. Available:https://doi.org/10.14260/jemds/2020/713.
Bawiskar, Nipun, Amol Andhale, Vidyashree Hulkoti, Sourya Acharya, and Samarth Shukla. “Haematological Manifestations of Covid-19 and Emerging Immunohaematological Therapeutic Strategies.” Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences-Jemds. 2020;9 (46):3489–94. Available:https://doi.org/10.14260/jemds/2020/763.
Burhani, Tasneem Sajjad, and Waqar M. Naqvi. “Telehealth - A Boon in the Time of COVID 19 Outbreak.” Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences-Jemds. 2020;9(23):2081–84. Available:https://doi.org/10.14260/jemds/2020/454.
Butola, Lata Kanyal, Ranjit Ambad, Prakash Keshaorao Kute, Roshan Kumar Jha, and Amol Dattaroa Shinde. “The Pandemic of 21st Century - COVID-19.” Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences-Jemds. 2020;9(39):2913–18. Available:https://doi.org/10.14260/jemds/2020/637.
Dasari, Venkatesh, and Kiran Dasari. “Nutraceuticals to Support Immunity: COVID-19 Pandemic- A Wake-up Call.” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2020;14(7):OE05–9. Available:https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2020/44898.13843.
Dhok, Archana, Lata Kanyal Butola, Ashish Anjankar, Amol Datta Rao Shinde, Prakash Kesharao Kute, and Roshan Kumar Jha. “Role of Vitamins and Minerals in Improving Immunity during Covid-19 Pandemic - A Review.” Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences-Jemds. 2020;9(32):2296–2300. Available:https://doi.org/10.14260/jemds/2020/497.
Gawai, Jaya Pranoykumar, Seema Singh, Vaishali Deoraoji Taksande, Tessy Sebastian, Pooja Kasturkar, and Ruchira Shrikant Ankar. “Critical Review on Impact of COVID 19 and Mental Health.” Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences-Jemds. 2020;9(30):2158– 63. Available:https://doi.org/10.14260/jemds/2020/470.
Abstract View: 57 times
PDF Download: 20 times