Effects of Anticoagulants and Corticosteroids Therapy in Patients Affected by Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International,
Background: In the absence of a standard of treatment for COVID-19, the combined use of anti-inflammatory (corticosteroids and Enoxaparin) and antiviral drugs may be more effective than using either modality alone in the treatment of COVID-19.
Methods: Patients hospitalized between April 10th, 2020, through May 10th, 2020, who had confirmed COVID-19 infection with clinical or radiographic evidence of pneumonia, in which 65 patients have moderate COVID-19 pneumonia, and 63 patients have severe COVID-19 pneumonia. All patients received early combination therapy of anti-inflammatory (corticosteroids and Enoxaparin) and antiviral drugs. They assessed for type and duration of treatment, and days need to wean from oxygen therapy, length of stay, virus clearance time, and complication or adverse events. All patients had more than 28 days follow up after discharge from the hospital.
Results: Moderate COVID-19 pneumonia group were 65 patients who received Enoxaparin, antiviral drugs, empirical antibiotics for pneumonia, and standard treatment for comorbidity. Male patients were 50 (76.9%) and female patients were 15 (23.1%). 34 (52.3%) patients have comorbidity, 25 (38.5%) patients have Diabetes Mellitus and 2 (3.1%) pregnant ladies. 19 (29.2%) patients were on low flow oxygen therapy, 3L oxygen or less to maintain oxygen saturation more than 92%. All patients discharged home with no major or minor bleeding complications or significant complications. Severe COVID-19 pneumonia group were 63 patients who received methylprednisolone, enoxaparin, antiviral drugs, empirical antibiotics for pneumonia, and standard treatment for comorbidity. Male patients were 55 (87.3%) and female patients were 8 (12.7%). 37 (58.7%) patients have comorbidity, and 24 (38.1%) patients have Diabetes Mellitus. 32 (50.8%) patients were on low flow oxygen therapy, 4-9L oxygen, and 31 (49.2%) patients were on low flow oxygen therapy, 10L oxygen or more, including 12 patients on a non-rebreathing mask. Patients received methylprednisolone were 37 (58.7%) for 3 days, 16 (25.4%) for 5 days and 10 (15.9%) for more than 5 days. Sixty-two patients discharged home with one patient had a long stay, and the other two transferred to ICU. One long-stay patient transferred to ICU on low flow oxygen therapy.
Conclusion: Early use of a combined anti-inflammatory (corticosteroids and Enoxaparin) and antiviral drugs treatment in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia prevent complications of the disease and improve clinical outcomes.
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