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Aim: To evaluate the acute toxicity, a phytochemical constituent of the ethanol extract of the fruit of Harungana madagascariensis, as well as its trace element composition and anti-anaemic effects.
Materials and Methods: Lorke’s method was used to evaluate acute toxicity and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer for elemental composition analysis. Thirty-six albino rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each. Anaemia was induced by intraperitoneal administration of phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride (80 mg/kg) in 5 groups while the 6th group served as non-anaemic group (normal control). Administration of extract was done for 21 consecutive days orally at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg respectively to groups I, II and III, group IV received vitamin B12 while group V served as the negative control. Haematological parameters (PCV, HB and RBC) were evaluated.
Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and free anthraquinones. The extract contains sodium, iron and zinc in proportions of 135.09 ppm, 15.52 ppm and12.68 ppm respectively as well as copper, chromium and other elements.
The results showed that the extract at 500 mg/kg significantly (P<0.05) increased the PCV, Hb and RBC (55.33%, 18.47 g/dl and 6.17 ×1012) more than the 1000 mg/kg dose when compared to the controls.
Conclusion: The findings showed that this extract possesses anti-anaemic activity which may be attributed to its phytochemical constituents and trace elemental composition.