Toxicological Investigations of Ethanolic Leaves Extract of Dissothis thollonii (Melastomataceae)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International,
Dissotis thollonii is widely used in Cameroon for the treatment of typhoid fever, gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, kidney diseases, pregnancy control and sinusitis. However there is lack of experimental data on its possible toxicity.
The aim was to investigate acute and subchronic toxicity of the ethanol leaf extract of Dissotis thollonii in healthy Wistar rats.
In acute toxicity tests, a single administration of the ethanolic leaf extract (5000 mg/kg) of Dissotis thollonii was given orally to 4 female rats. The general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days post-treatment. On the 15th day, the rats were weighed and euthanized for necropsy. In sub-chronic toxicity tests, the extract (18.28; 62.50; 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day) was given orally to both male and female rats for 28 days. General behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were observed throughout the experimental period. Food intake, body weight, organ weight, hematological parameters, biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were evaluated.
Dissotis thollonii leaf extract did not cause any death or any hazardous symptoms during acute toxicity, and the LD50 of his was higher than 5000 mg/kg. Sub-chronic administration of Dissotis thollonii leaf extract showed significant (p > 0.05) variations in some biochemical parameters (serum urea, urinary urea, ALT, AST, and ALP) in the experimental groups at the dose of 250 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg for both male and female rats. No major morphological changes were observed in the histopathological analysis of liver and kidney. However, a congestion on liver sections at a dose of 1000 mg/kg for females and at 250; 1000 mg/kg for males was observed.
These findings showed that acute or subchronic oral administration of the ethanolic leaf extract of Dissotis thollonii may be considered as relatively free of toxicity. However, prolonged use of high doses of the extract orally should be exercised with caution to avoid a possible liver injury.
- Dissotis thollonii
- acute and subchronic toxicity
- biochemical parameters
- hematological parameters
- histopathological changes.
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